1 a loud low dull continuous noise; "they heard the rumbling of thunder" [syn: rumble, rumbling, grumbling]
2 a complaint uttered in a low and indistinct tone [syn: grumbling, murmur, murmuring, mutter, muttering]
1 show one's unhappiness or critical attitude; "He scolded about anything that he thought was wrong"; "We grumbled about the increased work load" [syn: grouch, scold]
2 make complaining remarks or noises under one's breath; "she grumbles when she feels overworked" [syn: murmur, mutter, croak, gnarl]
3 to utter or emit low dull rumbling sounds; "he grumbled a rude response"; "Stones grumbled down the cliff" [syn: growl, rumble]
4 make a low noise; "rumbling thunder" [syn: rumble]
- Rhymes: -ʌmbəl
a low thundering, rumbling, or growling sound
the sound made by a hungry stomach
- German: Knurren
- to make a low growling or rumbling noise
- to complain
- He grumbles about the food constantly, but has yet to learn to cook.
to make a low growling or rumbling noise
- German: brummen
- German: murren
The S-300 is a series of Russian long range surface-to-air missile systems produced by the Almaz Scientific Industrial Corporation all based on the initial S-300P version. It was developed as a system against aircraft and cruise missiles for the Soviet Air Defence Forces, but later variations were also developed to intercept ballistic missiles.
The S-300 system was first deployed by the USSR in 1979, and was designed for the air defense of large industrial and administrative facilities, military bases, and control of airspace against enemy strike aircraft. The S-300 is capable of destroying ballistic missile targets, and is one of the best multi-target-engagement capable anti-aircraft-missile systems, with an ability to track up to 100 targets simultaneously while engaging up to 12 at the same time. The current developer of the S-300 is the Russian Almaz (government, private, or joint-stock?) corporation, whose AA Raspletina unit, part of the Air Defense Concern "Almaz-Antei". S-300 deployment time is five minutes. The S-300 missiles are sealed rounds and require no maintenance over their lifetime. An evolved version of the S-300 system is the S-400 (NATO reporting name SA-21), entering into service in 2004.
Export users include Armenia, People's Republic of China, India, Ukraine, Belarus, Slovakia, Greece, Kazakhstan.
Variations and upgradesNumerous versions have since emerged with different missiles, improved radars, better resistance to countermeasures, longer range and better capability against short-range ballistic missiles or targets flying at very low altitude. There are currently three main variations.
S-300P (SA-10)The S-300PT (transliterated from Russian С-300П, NATO reporting name SA-10a GRUMBLE) is the original version of the S-300 system which became operational in 1978. In 1987 over 80 of these sites were active, mainly in the area around Moscow. The P suffix stand for PVO-Strany (air defence system). An S-300PT unit consists of a 36D6 (NATO reporting name TIN SHIELD) surveillance radar, a 30N6 (FLAP LID) fire control system and 5P85-1 launch vehicles. The 5P85-1 vehicle is a semi-trailer truck. Usually a 76N6 (CLAM SHELL) low altitude detection radar is also a part of the unit.
This system broke substantial new ground, including the use of a phased array radar and multiple engagements on the same FCS. Nevertheless, it had some limitations. It took over 1 hour to set up this semi-mobile system for firing and the hot vertical launch method employed scorched the TEL.
It was originally intended to fit the Track Via Missile (TVM) guidance system onto this model. However, the TVM system had problems tracking targets below 500m. Rather than accept the limitation, the Soviets decided that the tracking of low altitude targets was a must and decided to use a pure command-guidance system until the TVM head was ready
S-300PMU-1/2 (SA-20)The S-300PMU-1 (Russian C-300ПМУ-1,US DoD designation SA-20A, NATO reporting name SA-20 GARGOYLE) was also introduced in 1992 with the new and larger 48N6 missiles for the first time in a land-based system and introduced all the same performance improvements from the S300FM version including the increased speed, range, TVM guidance and ABM capability. The warhead is slightly smaller than the naval version at 143 kg (315 lb). This version also saw the introduction of the new and more capable 30N6E TOMB STONE radar.
The S-300PMU-1 was introduced in 1999 and for the first time introduces several different kinds of missiles in a single system. In addition to the 5V55R, 48N6E and 48N6E2 missiles the S-300PMU-1 can utilise two new missiles, the 9M96E1 and 9M96E2. Both are significantly smaller than the previous missiles at 330 and 420 kg (728 and 926 lb respectively) and carry smaller 24 kg (53 lb) warhead. The 9M96E1 has an engagement range of 1-40 km (1-25 mi) and the 9M96E2 of 1-120 km (1-75 mi). They are still carried 4 per TEL. Rather than just relying on aerodynamic fins for manoeuvring, they use a gas-dynamic system which allows them to have an excellent probability of kill (Pk) despite the much smaller warhead. The Pk is estimated at 0.7 against a tactical ballistic missile for either missile. The S-300PMU-1 typically uses the 83M6E command and control system, although it is also compatible with the older Baikal-1E and Senezh-M1E CCS command and control systems. The 83M6E system incorporates the 64N6E (BIG BIRD) surveillance/detection radar. The fire control/illumination and guidance radar used is the 30N6E(1), optionally matched with a 76N6 low altitude detection radar and a 96L6E all altitude detection radar. The 83M6E command and control system can control up to 12 TELs, both the self propelled 5P85SE vehicle and the 5P85TE towed launchers. Generally support vehicles are also included, such as the 40V6M tow vehicle, intended for lifting of the antenna post.
The S-300PMU-2 Favorit (Russian C-300ПМУ-2 Фаворит – Favourite, DoD designation SA-20B), introduced in 1997, is an upgrade to the S-300PMU-1 with range extended once again to 195 km (121 mi) with the introduction of the 48N6E2 missile. This system is apparently capable against not just short range ballistic missiles, but now also medium range tactical ballistic missiles. It uses the 83M6E2 command and control system, consisting of the 54K6E2 command post vehicle and the 64N6E2 surveillance/detection radar. It employs the 30N6E2 fire control/illumination and guidance radar. Like the S-300PMU-1, 12 TELs can be controlled, with any mix of 5P85SE2 self propelled and 5P85TE2 trailer launchers. Optionally it can make use of the 96L6E all altitude detection radar and 76N6 low altitude detection radar, just like the S-300PMU-1. Little else is known about this version.
S-300V (SA-12)The 9K81 S-300V Antey-300 (Russian 9К81 С-300В Антей-300 - named after Antaeus, NATO reporting name SA-12 GLADIATOR/GIANT) is a bit different from the other versions. It was built by Antey as opposed to Almaz. The V suffix stands for Voyska (ground forces). It was designed to act as the top tier army air defence system, providing a defence against ballistic missiles, cruise missiles and aircraft, replacing the SA-4 'Ganef. The "GLADIATOR" missiles have a maximum engagement range of around 75 km (47 miles) while the "GIANT" missiles can engage targets out to 100 km (62 miles) and up to altitudes of around 32 km (100,000 ft). In both cases the warhead is around 150 kg (331 lb).
While it was created from the same project (hence the common S-300 designation) different priorities resulted in a design quite different from the other versions. The S-300V system is carried on tracked MT-T transporters, which gives it better cross-country mobility than even the S-300Ps on 8x8 wheeled transporters. It is also somewhat more distributed than the S-300P's. For example, while both have mechanically-scanned radar for target acquisition (9S15 BILL BOARD A), the battery level 9S32 GRILL PAN has autonomous search ability and SARH delegated to illumination radar on TELARs. The early 30N6 FLAP LID on the S-300P handles tracking and illumination, but is not equipped with autonomous search (later upgraded).
The S-300V places a greater emphasis on ABM, with the dedicated 9M83 (SA-12B Giant). This missile is larger and only two can be held on each TELAR. It also has a dedicated ABM radar - the 9S19 HIGH SCREEN phased array radar at battalion level. A typical S-300V battalion is made up out of a target detection and designation unit, a guidance radar and up to 6 TELARs. The detection and designation unit consists of the 9S457-1 command post, a 9S15MV or 9S15MT BILL BOARD all-round surveillance radar and 9S19M2 HIGH SCREEN sector surveillance radar. The S-300V uses the 9S32-1 GRILL PAN multi-channel guidance radar. Four types of TELARs can be used with the system. The 9A83-1 which holds 4 9M83 GLADIATOR missiles and the 9A82 which holds 2 9M82 GIANT missiles are pure launchers, while the 9A84 (4× 9M83 GLADIATOR missile) and 9A85 (2× 9M82 GIANT missile) are loaders/launchers.
S-300VM (SA-23)The S-300VM (Antey 2500) is an upgrade to the S-300V. It consists of a new command post vehicle, the 9S457ME and a selection of new radars. As all-round surveillance radar the 9S15M2, 9S15MT2E or 9S15MV2E are possible, and the sector surveillance radar was upgraded to 9S19ME. The upgraded guidance radar has Grau index 9S32ME. The system can still employ up to 6 TELARs, the 9A84ME launchers (up to 4 × 9M83ME missile) and up to 6 launcher/loader vehicles assigned to each launcher (2 × 9M83ME missile each).
The S-300F Fort (Russian C-300Ф Форт, DoD designation SA-N-6, F suffix for Flot, Russian for fleet) was introduced in 1984 as the original ship-based (naval) version of the S-300P system with the new 5V55RM missile with range extended to 7-90 km (4-56 mi) and maximum target speed up to Mach 4 while engagement altitude was reduced to 25-25,000 m (100-82,000 ft). The naval version utilises the TOP SAIL or TOP STEER, TOP PAIR and 3R41 Volna (TOP DOME) radar and utilises command guidance with a terminal semi-active radar homing (SARH) mode. Its first installation and sea trials were on a Kara class cruiser and it is also installed on Slava class cruisers and Kirov class battlecruisers. It is stored in eight (Slava) or twelve (Kirov) 8-missile rotary launchers below decks. The export version of this system is known as Rif (Russian Риф — reef). Two Rif systems were purchased by China in 2002 and installed on the Type 051C Luzhou class air-defence guided missile destroyers.
The S-300FM Fort-M (Russian C-300ФМ, DoD designation SA-N-20) is another naval version of the system, installed only on the Kirov class cruiser RFS Pyotr Velikiy, and introduced the new 48N6 missile. It was introduced in 1990 and increased missile speed to approximately Mach 6 for a maximum target engagement speed of up to Mach 8.5, increased the warhead size to 150 kg (330 lb) and increased the maximum engagement range yet again to 5-150 km (3-93 mi) as well as opening the altitude envelope to 10m-27 km (33-88500 ft). The new missiles also introduced the ultimate track-via-missile guidance method and brought with it the ability to intercept short-range ballistic missiles. This system makes use of the TOMB STONE MOD rather than TOP DOME radar. The export version is called the Rif-M.
Both naval versions are believed to include a secondary infrared terminal seeker, similar to the newer US Standard missile system, probably to reduce the system's vulnerability to saturation. This also allows the missile to engage contacts over the radar horizon, such as warships or sea-skimming anti-ship missiles.
Users and other versionsThe S-300 is mainly used in Eastern-Europe and the Asia although sources are inconsistent about the exact countries that possess the system.
- 8 S-300PMU2 was ordered in 2006.
- - 350 SA-8, SA-11, SA-12 and SA-13
- has two S-300 units. China also built an upgraded version of the HQ-10 labelled the HQ-15 with the maximum range upgraded from 150 km (93 mi) to 200 km (124 mi). There are unconfirmed reports that claim this version is the Chinese manufactured S-300PMU-2. The total number of the S-300PMU/1/2 and HQ-15/18 batteries in PLA are approximately 40 and 60 respectively, in the year 2008. The total number of the missiles is well above 1600, with about 300 launcher platforms. 5 of such SAM battalions are deployed and in active duty around Beijing region, 6 battalions in Taiwan strait region and rest battalions in other major cities like Shanghai, Chengdu and Dalian. Two Rif (SA-N-6) systems were purchased in 2002 for the Chinese Navy for the Type 051C Destroyers.
- /: Cyprus signed an agreement to buy S-300 systems in 1996. Eventually bought the S-300PMU-1 version, but due to political tension between Cyprus and Turkey and intense Anglo-American pressure, the system was transferred to the Greek Island of Crete. Later, Cyprus acquired the Tor-M1 system. Finally, on 19/12/07 the missiles passed officially to Greek government, along with the Tor-M1 missile systems and the Zuzana artillery systems.
- - one battalion created in 1990 later passed on Slovakia
- - Indonesian air force has shown interest of acquiring several S-300PMU-2 systems
- has bought six S-300 batteries in August 1995 for $1 billion, probably the S-300PMU-2 version, believed to consist of 48 missiles per system. These will most likely be used in the short-range ballistic-missile defence (BMD) role against Pakistan's M-11 missiles.
- 's status regarding the S-300 system remains controversial. They seem to have acquired an unknown number of S-300PMU-1 missiles in 1993, maybe even recently from Belarus. Iran claimed to have signed a contract with Russia on 25 december 2007 on the sales of the S-300PMU-1 missile system. Russian officials have denied this.
- - 4 S-300PMU-2 systems will be ordered
- - inherited from Czechoslovakia
- announced an intention to buy the S-300P in 1991 and now seems to possess the system. More than 20 Russian battalions will be equipped with S-400 anti-missile systems by 2015 said General of the Army Yury Baluyevsky, Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.
- - S-300PMU, S-300V and others.
- has bought an S-300V system for evaluation and to help upgrade Patriots with superior technology that could be (or was) taken upon evaluation of S-300V
- has bought two S-300PMU-1 batteries (12 launchers) for nearly $300 million.
Combat historyAlthough none of the S-300 versions have ever fired a missile in a real conflict, it is considered a very capable SAM system. In April 2005, NATO had a combat exercise in France and Germany called Trial Hammer 05 to practice SEAD missions. || TOP STEER || Naval || 300 km (186 mi) || || D/E || S-300F |- | MR-800 Voskhod || || || 330 kg (728 lb) || 24 kg (53 lb) || Active Radar Homing || S-400 |- | 9M96E2 || 1999 || 120 km (75 mi) || 1000m/s|| || || 420 kg (926 lb) || 24 kg (53 lb) || Active Radar Homing || S-400 |- | 40N6 || 2000 || 400 km (250 mi) || || || || || || Active Radar Homing || S-400 |}
- http://www.almaz-antey.ru/ in Russian
- http://www.ausairpower.net/TE-Asia-Sams-Pt1.pdf and http://www.ausairpower.net/TE-Asia-Sams-Pt2.pdf, a two-part piece from Australian Air Power.
- www.dtig.org detailed overview of the S-300P & S-300V family.
- SA-10 Grumble PRC-ROC Air Power Monitor
- Almaz S-300 – China's “Offensive” Air Defense
- Soviet/Russian Missile Designations
- S-300PMU2 Favorit EnemyForces.com
- Almaz S-300P/PT/PS/PMU/PMU-1/PMU-2
- 76N6 Clam Shell Acquisition Radar
- Antey 9K81 S-300V - SA-12A/B Gladiator/Giant
grumble in Bulgarian: С-300 (ракета)
grumble in German: S-300
grumble in Spanish: Almaz S-300
grumble in French: S-300 PMU-2
grumble in Korean: S-300
grumble in Italian: SA-10 Grumble
grumble in Hebrew: S-300
grumble in Japanese: S-300 (ミサイル)
grumble in Polish: S-300W
grumble in Russian: ЗРК С-300
grumble in Finnish: S-300
grumble in Turkish: S-300
grumble in Chinese: SA-10
air a grievance, beef, belch, bellyache, bitch, blare, blat, boom, booming, brawl, bray, burr, buzz, cackle, cannonade, caw, chirr, clamor, clang, clangor, clank, clash, complain, crab, craunch, croak, crump, crunch, echo, fret, fret and fume, fuss, gnarl, grind, gripe, groan, grouch, grouse, growl, growling, grumbling, grunt, hiss, holler, howl, jangle, jar, kick, lodge a complaint, moan, murmur, mutter, peal, raise a howl, rasp, reboation, rebound, reecho, register a complaint, resound, resounding, reverberation, roar, roll, rumble, rumbling, scold, scranch, scrape, scratch, scrunch, snap, snarl, snore, spit, squawk, take on, thunder, thundering, twang, whine, yap, yelp